The Troubled Waters of Evolution
by Henry M. Morris

A theological and philosophical defense of the biblical story of creation and the great flood versus evolution and religious compromises with evolution. He places special emphasis on the conflict between entropy and evolution.
"Mutations are fairly common, but not transmutations." (16)

"Evolutionary faith must be maintained in spite of the Second Law of Thermodynamics, the clear-cut distinction between kinds, the very limited nature of observed biological changes, the deteriorative nature of mutations, the many contradictions in the fossil record, the catastrophic appearance of most geologic formations, and many other problems. These phenomena are all perfectly consistent with creationism, of course." (22)

"... it is not true as often charged that the concept of a stationary earth and geocentric universe ... originated in the Bible. The Bible teaches neither of these things, but the church of those centuries was largely dominated by the philosophy of Aristotle, and these ideas were part of his system, as well as that of Ptolemy." (63)

"No preliminary forms, no transitional forms, clear gaps between kinds, same taxonomic categories [in the fossil record] as at present, etc.,--all of which are explicitly different from the predictions of evolution." (89)

"Everything that exists in the universe is some form of energy, and everything that happens is some form of energy conversion." (115)

"... ultimately, all energy in the universe will be unavailable energy ... Everything will be at the same low temperature. There will be no 'differential' of energy levels, therefore no 'gradient' of energy to induce its flow. No work can be done and the universe will reach what the physicists call its ultimate 'heat death.'
... If it [the universe] were of infinite antiquity, it obviously would already be dead."
Thus the Second Law proves, as certainly as science can prove anything whatever, that the universe had a beginning." (117)

Isaac Asimov wrote "The universe is constantly getting more disorderly. ... We have to work hard to straighten a room, but left to itself, it becomes a mess again very quickly and very easily. ... In fact, all we have to do is nothing, and everything deteriorates, collapses, breaks down, wears out, all by itself--and that is what the Second Law is all about." (119)

Yet it cannot be denied that, over time, mankind has improved our communication media and our knowledge. Individual men and individual cultures increase their knowledge as they grow to maturity.

Entropy is a measure of disorder, wasted energy, or useless noise reflecting the fact that 'there is an inexorable downhill trend toward ultimate complete randomness, utter meaninglessness, and absolute stillness." (121)

There seem to be some exceptions: "A seed grows up into a tree, and an embryo grows up into an adult animal. Even in the non-living world, there seem to be some exceptions; for example, the formation and growth of a crystal." (123)

"A code always requires an intelligent coder. A program requires a programmer. To say that the most fantastically complex and effective code of all--the genetic code--somehow coded itself in the first place, is to abandon all pretence of science and reason in the study of the world as it is." (126)

"Thus, an average population growth rate of only 1/2% would generate the present world population in only 4000 years. This is only one-fourth of the present rate of growth." (151)

"In spite of its randomness, therefore, evolutionists believe that the net result of evolution has somehow been the development of higher and higher kinds, and finally of man himself.
This development is believed by most evolutionists to have been made possible by a peculiar combination of small populations, changing environments and accelerated mutational pressures, a combination which supposedly enables natural selection to function in its remarkable role as 'creator' of new and better kinds of populations. It would seem therefore that anything that would change the environment today (for example, by altering the chemical components of the atmosphere and hydrosphere through pollution), decrease populations (perhaps by war, famine, or pestilence), or increase mutational pressures (such as by increasing the radioactive component of the biosphere through nuclear testing), would contribute positively to further evolution and therefore should be encouraged, at least if evolutionists are correct in their understanding of evolutionary mechanisms. In other words, the very processes which modern ecologists most deplore today are those which they believe to have been the cause of the upward evolution of the biosphere in the past. The conclusion would seem to be that evolution requires pollution!" (156)

"... if men do not believe in a divine Creator, they must eventually believe in some kind of spontaneous generation of life." (170)

"If the Bible cannot be understood, it is useless as revelation. If it contains scientific fallacies, it could not have been given by inspiration." (184-185)

Theistic evolution contradicts the Biblical record of creation and supposes that God used cruel, haphazard, inefficient, and wasteful processes. (185)

Progressive creation (for example, man's soul was created, though his body evolved from an ape-like ancestor) charges God with waste and cruelty (through its commitment to the geologic ages) and also with ignorance and impotence. "A god who would have to create man by any such ... discontinuous, injurious method as this can hardly be the omniscient, omnipotent, loving God of the Bible." (186)

The day-age theory charges God with the direct responsibility for five billion years of history of purposeless variation, accidental changes, evolutionary blind alleys, numerous misfits and extinctions, a cruel struggle for existence, ... natural disasters of all kinds, rampant disease, disorder, and decay, and, above all, with death. (188)

The gap theory leaves unanswered the serious problem as to why God would use the method of slow evolution over long ages in the primeval world, then destroy it, and then use the method of special creation to re-create the same forms He had just destroyed. (189)

Year Read: 1999

Back to Libertarian Essays by Roy Halliday
Back to Nonfiction Book Notes
Back to Fiction Book Notes
Back to Book Notes by Author

This page was last updated on September 27, 2011.
This site is maintained by Roy Halliday. If you have any comments or suggestions, please send them to